Body mass index

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Body mass index


The body mass index, BMI, is the ratio of body mass to height squared (BMI=M·H-2), recommended by the WHO as a general indicator of underweight (BMI<18.5 kg·m-2), overweight (BMI>25 kg·m-2) and obesity (BMI>30 kg·m-2). Keys et al (1972; see 2014) emphasized that 'the prime criterion must be the relative independence of the index from height'. It is exactly the dependence of the BMI on height - from children to adults, women to men, Caucasians to Asians -, which requires adjustments of BMI-cutoff points. This deficiency is resolved by the body mass excess relative to the healthy reference population.

Abbreviation: BMI

Reference: Keys 2014 Int J Epidemiol

Healthy reference population     Body mass excess         BFE         BME cutoffs         BMI         H         M         VO2max         mitObesity drugs

BMI BruceBlaus.png
Communicated by Gnaiger Erich (2020-02-15) last update 2020-07-24
in: Catastrophe XXX XXX-mass Carol on BME and mitObesity of A X-mass Carol
Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874), the founder of anthropometry and pioneer in statistics, considered the ratio BMI=M·H-2 (per area; Quetelet index) and BMI=M·H-3 (per volume; related to the ponderal index).
The vast majority of illustrations of the BMI compares people of various fatness at the same height (H; dashed horizontal lines in the two Figures). Without variation of height, the concept of the BMI would be simple and redundant: the BMI increases linearly as a function of body mass excess at constant height. At zero body mass excess of the healthy reference population, however, the BMI° (indicating zero underweight or overweight) increases by about 1 BMI unit with every 0.1 m increase in height above 1.2 m/x. Whereas the healthy reference BMI° is 22 kg·m-2 at a height of 1.9 m/x, it is 18 kg·m-2 at 1.5 m/x, and declines to 15 kg·m-2 for children of 1.0 m/x at less than 5 years of age.
More details: » Healthy reference population (HRP); » Body mass excess (BME)
BMI huffpost.png

References: BMI

  • Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL (2014) Indices of relative weight and obesity. Int J Epidemiol 43:655-65. - »Bioblast link«
  • NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) (2017) Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet 390:2627–42. - »Bioblast link«
  • WHO Obesity (retrieved from, 2020-07-05)
  • Ritchie Hannah, Roser Max (2017) Obesity. Published online at Retrieved from: '' [Online Resource]

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Broskey 2014 J Clin Endocrinol Metab2014Broskey NT, Greggio C, Boss A, Boutant M, Dwyer A, Schlueter L, Hans D, Gremion G, Kreis R, Boesch C, Canto AC, Amati F (2014) Skeletal muscle mitochondria in the elderly: effects of physical fitness and exercise training. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:1852-61.HumanSkeletal muscleCryopreservationAging;senescence
Keys 2014 Int J Epidemiol2014Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL (2014) Indices of relative weight and obesity. Int J Epidemiol 43:655-65.HumanFatObesity
Ludzki 2014 Thesis2014Ludzki AC (2014) Palmitoyl-CoA inhibition of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is attenuated by exercise training in human skeletal muscle. Master's Thesis 1-86.Human
Skeletal muscle
Kuper 2014 BMC Public Health2014Kuper H, Taylor A, Krishna KV, Ben-Shlomo Y, Gupta R, Kulkarni B, Prabhakaran D, Davey Smith G, Wells J, Ebrahim S, Kinra S (2014) Is vulnerability to cardiometabolic disease in Indians mediated by abdominal adiposity or higher body adiposity. BMC Public Health 14:1239.HumanFatCardiovascular
Heymsfield 2014 Am J Clin Nutr2014Heymsfield SB, Peterson CM, Thomas DM, Heo M, Schuna JM Jr, Hong S, Choi W (2014) Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI. Am J Clin Nutr 100:1455-61.Human
Gram 2014 Exp Gerontol2014Gram M, Vigelsoe A, Yokota T, Hansen CN, Helge JW, Hey-Mogensen M, Dela F (2014) Two weeks of one-leg immobilization decreases skeletal muscle 2 respiratory capacity equally in young and elderly men. Exp Gerontol 58C:269-78.HumanSkeletal muscleAging;senescence
Dube 2014 Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab2014Dube JJ, Coen PM, DiStefano G, Chacon AC, Helbling NL, Desimone ME, Stafanovic-Racic M, Hames KC, Despines AA, Toledo FG, Goodpaster BH (2014) Effects of acute lipid overload on skeletal muscle insulin resistance, metabolic flexibility, and mitochondrial performance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 307:E1117-24.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
Genne-Bacon 2014 Yale J Biol Med2014Genné-Bacon EA (2014) Thinking evolutionarily about obesity. Yale J Biol Med 87:99-112.HumanObesity
Mialich 2014 Nutr Hosp2014Mialich MS, Martinez EZ, Jordao JJ (2014) Application of body mass index adjusted for fat mass (BMIfat) obtained by bioelectrical impedance in adults. Nutr Hosp 30:417-24.HumanFatObesity
Karabatsiakis 2014 Transl Psychiatry2014Karabatsiakis A, Böck C, Salinas-Manrique J, Kolassa S, Calzia E, Dietrich DE, Kolassa IT (2014) Mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with depressive subsymptoms and severity of major depression. Transl Psychiatry 4:e397.HumanBlood cellsCryopreservationNeurodegenerative
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Afolabi 2013 Int J Sci Engin Res2013Afolabi BO, Akanbi OG (2013) Effects of body mass index on aerobic power (VO2max) and energy expenditure (EE): a case of manual load lifting in agro-processing. Int J Sci Engin Res 4:1718-21.Human
Johnson 2013 Obesity (Silver Spring)2013Johnson RJ, Stenvinkel P, Martin SL, Jani A, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Hill JO, Lanaspa MA (2013) Redefining metabolic syndrome as a fat storage condition based on studies of comparative physiology. Obesity (Silver Spring) 21:659-64.HumanObesity
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Bonthuis 2013 PLOS ONE2013Bonthuis M, Jager KJ, Abu-Hanna A, Verrina E, Schaefer F, van Stralen KJ (2013) Application of body mass index according to height-age in short and tall children. PLOS ONE 8:e72068.Human
Dagan 2013 Nutr J2013Dagan SS, Segev S, Novikov I, Dankner R (2013) Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects. Nutr J 12:12.Human
Loe 2013 PLOS ONE2013Loe H, Rognmo Ø, Saltin B, Wisløff U (2013) Aerobic capacity reference data in 3816 healthy men and women 20-90 years. PLOS ONE 8:e64319.Human
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Thomas 2012 Nutr Res Rev2012Thomas EL, Frost G, Taylor-Robinson SD, Bell JD (2012) Excess body fat in obese and normal-weight subjects. Nutr Res Rev 25:150–61.HumanFatObesity
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Bergman 2011 Obesity (Silver Spring)2011Bergman RN, Stefanovski D, Buchanan TA, Sumner AE, Reynolds JC, Sebring NG, Xiang AH, Watanabe RM (2011) A better index of body adiposity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19:1083-9.HumanFatObesity
Timmers 2011 Cell Metab2011Timmers S, Konings E, Bilet L, Houtkooper RH, van de Weijer T, Goossens GH, Hoeks J, van der Krieken S, Ryu D, Kersten S, Moonen-Kornips E, Hesselink MK, Kunz I, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB, Blaak EE, Auwerx J, Schrauwen P (2011) Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans. Cell Metab 14:612-22.HumanSkeletal muscleObesity
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Studenski 2011 JAMA2011Studenski Stephanie, Perera Subashan, Patel Kushang, Rosano Caterina, Faulkner Kimberly, Inzitari Marco, Brach Jennifer, Chandler Julie, Cawthon Peggy, Connor Elizabeth Barrett, Nevitt Michael, Visser Marjolein, Kritchevsky Stephen, Badinelli Stefania, Harris Tamara, Newman Anne B, Cauley Jane, Ferrucci Luigi, Guralnik Jack (2011) Gait speed and survival in older adults. JAMA 305:50–8.HumanAging;senescence
Pesta 2011 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2011Pesta D, Hoppel F, Macek C, Messner H, Faulhaber M, Kobel C, Parson W, Burtscher M, Schocke M, Gnaiger E (2011) Similar qualitative and quantitative changes of mitochondrial respiration following strength and endurance training in normoxia and hypoxia in sedentary humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R1078–87.HumanSkeletal muscleHypoxiaObesity
Meeuwsen 2010 Clin Nutr2010Meeuwsen S, Horgan GW, Elia M (2010) The relationship between BMI and percent body fat, measured by bioelectrical impedance, in a large adult sample is curvilinear and influenced by age and sex. Clin Nutr 29:560-6.HumanFatAging;senescence
Pribis 2010 Nutrients2010Pribis P, Burtnack CA, McKenzie SO, Thayer J (2010) Trends in body fat, body mass index and physical fitness among male and female college students. Nutrients 2:1075-85.HumanObesity
So 2010 J Sports Sci Med2010So WY, Choi DH (2010) Differences in physical fitness and cardiovascular function depend on BMI in Korean men. J Sports Sci Med 9:239-44.Human
Wang 2010 Biomed Environ Sci2010Wang C, Hou XH, Zhang ML, Bao YQ, Zou YH, Zhong WH, Xiang KS, Jia WP (2010) Comparison of body mass index with body fat percentage in the evaluation of obesity in Chinese. Biomed Environ Sci 23:173-9.HumanDiabetes
Bosy-Westphal 2009 Br J Nutr2009Bosy-Westphal A, Plachta-Danielzik S, Dörhöfer RP, Müller MJ (2009) Short stature and obesity: positive association in adults but inverse association in children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 102:453-61.FatObesity
Volkow 2009 Obesity (Silver Spring)2009Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Thanos PK, Ma Y, Pradhan K (2009) Inverse association between BMI and prefrontal metabolic activity in healthy adults. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:60-5.HumanNervous systemObesity
Misra 2009 J Assoc Physicians India2009Misra A, Chowbey P, Makkar BM, Vikram NK, Wasir JS, Chadha D, Joshi Shashank R, Sadikot S, Gupta R, Gulati Seema, Munjal YP, Concensus Group (2009) Consensus statement for diagnosis of obesity, abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome for Asian Indians and recommendations for physical activity, medical and surgical management. J Assoc Physicians India 57:163–70.HumanFatCardiovascular
Walley 2009 Nat Rev Genet2009Walley AJ, Asher JE, Froguel P (2009) The genetic contribution to non-syndromic human obesity. Nat Rev Genet 10:431–42.HumanObesity
Raboel 2009 Diabetes Obes Metab2009Raboel R, Hojberg PM, Almdal T, Boushel RC, Haugaard SB, Madsbad S, Dela F (2009) Improved glycaemic control decreases inner mitochondrial membrane leak in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 11:355-60.HumanSkeletal muscleMitochondrial diseaseDiabetes
Gnaiger 2009 Int J Biochem Cell Biol2009Gnaiger E (2009) Capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. New perspectives of mitochondrial physiology. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:1837-45.Human
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Romero-Corral 2008 Int J Obes (Lond)2008Romero-Corral A, Somers VK, Sierra-Johnson J, Thomas RJ, Collazo-Clavell ML, Korinek J, Allison TG, Batsis JA, Sert-Kuniyoshi FH, Lopez-Jimenez F (2008) Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. Int J Obes (Lond) 32:959-66.HumanFatObesity
Nakhostin-Roohi 2008 J Sports Med Phys Fitness2008Nakhostin-Roohi B, Niknam Z (2008) BMI, fat percentage and VO2max in college female staff. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 48:211-6.Human
Cohen 2008 Am J Clin Nutr2008Cohen DA, Sturm R (2008) Body mass index is increasing faster among taller persons. Am J Clin Nutr 87:445-8.HumanObesity
Daussin 2008 Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol2008Daussin FN, Zoll J, Dufour SP, Ponsot E, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Doutreleau S, Mettauer B, Piquard F, Geny B, Richard R (2008) Effect of interval versus continuous training on cardiorespiratory and mitochondrial functions: relationship to aerobic performance improvements in sedentary subjects. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295:R264-72.HumanSkeletal muscle
Boushel 2007 Diabetologia2007Boushel RC, Gnaiger E, Schjerling P, Skovbro M, Kraunsoee R, Dela F (2007) Patients with Type 2 diabetes have normal mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Diabetologia 50:790-6.HumanSkeletal muscleDiabetes
De Onis 2007 Bull World Health Organization2007de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J (2007) Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organization 85:660-7.HumanObesity
Heymsfield 2007 Am J Clin Nutr2007Heymsfield SB, Gallagher D, Mayer L, Beetsch J, Pietrobelli A (2007) Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 86:82-91.HumanSkeletal muscle
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Wells 2007 Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc2007Wells JC (2007) The thrifty phenotype as an adaptive maternal effect. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 82:143-72.HumanObesity
Bakkman 2007 ActaPhysiol2007Bakkman L, Sahlin K, Holmberg HC, Tonkonogi M (2007) Quantitative and qualitative adaptation of human skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxic compared with normoxic training at the same relative work rate. Acta Physiol (Oxford) 190:243–51.HumanSkeletal muscleOxidative stress;RONS
Brien 2007 Can J Public Health2007Brien SE, Katzmarzyk PT, Craig CL, Gauvin L (2007) Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index as predictors of substantial weight gain and obesity: the Canadian physical activity longitudinal study. Can J Public Health 98:121-4..HumanObesity
Barquera 2007 Int J Obes (Lond)2007Barquera S, Peterson KE, Must A, Rogers BL, Flores M, Houser R, Monterrubio E, Rivera-Dommarco JA (2007) Coexistence of maternal central adiposity and child stunting in Mexico. Int J Obes (Lond) 31:601-7.HumanObesity
Joshi 2007 JAMA2007Joshi P, Islam S, Pais P, Reddy S, Dorairaj P, Kazmi K, Pandey MR, Haque S, Mendis S, Rangarajan S, Yusuf S (2007) Risk factors for early myocardial infarction in South Asians compared with individuals in other countries. JAMA 297:286-94.HumanCardiovascular
Rabinovich 2007 Eur Respir J2007Rabinovich RA, Bastos R, Ardite E, Llinàs L, Orozco-Levi M, Gea J, Vilaró J, Barberà JA, Rodríguez-Roisin R, Fernández-Checa JC, Roca J (2007) Mitochondrial dysfunction in COPD patients with low body mass index. Eur Respir J 29:643-50.HumanSkeletal muscleOxidative stress;RONS
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Dufour 2006 J Appl Physiol (1985)2006Dufour SP, Ponsot E, Zoll J, Doutreleau S, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Geny B, Lampert E, Flück M, Hoppeler H, Billat V, Mettauer B, Richard R, Lonsdorfer J (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. I. Improvement in aerobic performance capacity. J Appl Physiol (1985) 100:1238-48.HumanHypoxia
WHO 2006 Acta Paediatr2006WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006) WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Paediatr Suppl 450:76-85.Human
Wells 2006 Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc2006Wells JC (2006) The evolution of human fatness and susceptibility to obesity: an ethological approach. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 81:183-205.HumanObesity
WHO 2006 Geneva: World Health Organization2006WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006) WHO child growth standards: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization 312 pp.HumanObesity
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Diverse Populations Collaborative Group 2005 Am J Phys Anthropol2005Diverse Populations Collaborative Group (2005) Weight-height relationships and body mass index: some observations from the Diverse Populations Collaboration. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:220-9.Human
N'Guessan 2004 Mol Cell Biochem2004N'Guessan B, Zoll J, Ribera F, Ponsot E, Lampert E, Ventura-Clapier R, Veksler V, Mettauer B (2004) Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in human skeletal and cardiac muscles. Mol Cell Biochem 256-257:267-80.HumanSkeletal muscle
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Publications: BME and height

» Height of humans
Bosy-Westphal 2009 Br J NutrBosy-Westphal A, Plachta-Danielzik S, Dörhöfer RP, Müller MJ (2009) Short stature and obesity: positive association in adults but inverse association in children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 102:453-61.
De Onis 2007 Bull World Health Organizationde Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J (2007) Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organization 85:660-7.
Gnaiger 2019 MiP2019
Erich Gnaiger
OXPHOS capacity in human muscle tissue and body mass excess – the MitoEAGLE mission towards an integrative database (Version 6; 2020-01-12).
Hood 2019 Nutr DiabetesHood K, Ashcraft J, Watts K, Hong S, Choi W, Heymsfield SB, Gautam RK, Thomas D (2019) Allometric scaling of weight to height and resulting body mass index thresholds in two Asian populations. Nutr Diabetes 9:2. doi: 10.1038/s41387-018-0068-3.
Indian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee 2015 Indian PediatrIndian Academy of Pediatrics Growth Charts Committee, Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal KK, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, Goyal JP, Khadilkar A, Kumaravel V, Mohan V, Narayanappa D, Ray I, Yewale V (2015) Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to 18-year-old Indian children. Indian Pediatr 52:47-55.
Zucker 1962 Committee on Biological Handbooks, Fed Amer Soc Exp BiolZucker TF (1962) Regression of standing and sitting weights on body weight: man. In: Growth including reproduction and morphological development. Altman PL, Dittmer DS, eds: Committee on Biological Handbooks, Fed Amer Soc Exp Biol:336-7.

MitoPedia: BME and mitObesity

» Body mass excess and mitObesity | BME and mitObesity news | Summary |

BME cutoff pointsBME cutoffObesity is defined as a disease associated with an excess of body fat with respect to a healthy reference condition. Cutoff points for body mass excess, BME cutoff points, define the critical values for underweight (-0.1 and -0.2), overweight (0.2), and various degrees of obesity (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and above). BME cutoffs are calibrated by crossover-points of BME with established BMI cutoffs.
Body fat excessBFEIn the healthy reference population (HRP), there is zero body fat excess, BFE, and the fraction of excess body fat in the HRP is expressed - by definition - relative to the reference body mass, M°, at any given height. Importantly, body fat excess, BFE, and body mass excess, BME, are linearly related, which is not the case for the body mass index, BMI.
Body massm [kg]; M [kg·x-1]The body mass, M, is the mass (kilogram [kg]) of an individual (object) [x] and is expressed in units [kg/x]. Whereas the body weight changes as a function of gravitational force (you are weightless at zero gravity; your floating weight in water is different from your weight in air), your mass is independent of gravitational force, and it is the same in air and water.
Body mass excessBMEThe body mass excess, BME, is an index of obesity and as such BME is a lifestyle metric. The BME is a measure of the extent to which your actual body mass, M [kg/x], deviates from M° [kg/x], which is the reference body mass [kg] per individual [x] without excess body fat in the healthy reference population, HRP. A balanced BME is BME° = 0.0 with a band width of -0.1 towards underweight and +0.2 towards overweight. The BME is linearly related to the body fat excess.
Body mass indexBMIThe body mass index, BMI, is the ratio of body mass to height squared (BMI=M·H-2), recommended by the WHO as a general indicator of underweight (BMI<18.5 kg·m-2), overweight (BMI>25 kg·m-2) and obesity (BMI>30 kg·m-2). Keys et al (1972; see 2014) emphasized that 'the prime criterion must be the relative independence of the index from height'. It is exactly the dependence of the BMI on height - from children to adults, women to men, Caucasians to Asians -, which requires adjustments of BMI-cutoff points. This deficiency is resolved by the body mass excess relative to the healthy reference population.
ComorbidityComorbidities are common in obesogenic lifestyle-induced early aging. These are preventable, non-communicable diseases with strong associations to obesity. In many studies, cause and effect in the sequence of onset of comorbidities remain elusive. Chronic degenerative diseases are commonly obesity-induced. The search for the link between obesity and the etiology of diverse preventable diseases lead to the hypothesis, that mitochondrial dysfunction is the common mechanism, summarized in the term 'mitObesity'.
Healthy reference populationHRPA healthy reference population, HRP, establishes the baseline for the relation between body mass and height in healthy people of zero underweight or overweight, providing a reference for evaluation of deviations towards underweight or overweight and obesity. The WHO Child Growth Standards (WHO-CGS) on height and body mass refer to healthy girls and boys from Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. The Committee on Biological Handbooks compiled data on height and body mass of healthy males from infancy to old age (USA), published before emergence of the fast-food and soft-drink epidemic. Four allometric phases are distinguished with distinct allometric exponents. At heights above 1.26 m/x the allometric exponent is 2.9, equal in women and men, and significantly different from the exponent of 2.0 implicated in the body mass index, BMI [kg/m2].
Height of humansh [m]; H [m·x-1]The height of humans, h, is given in SI units in meters [m]. Humans are countable objects, and the symbol and unit of the number of objects is N [x]. The average height of N objects is, H = h/N [m/x], where h is the heights of all N objects measured on top of each other. Therefore, the height per human has the unit [m·x-1] (compare body mass [kg·x-1]). Without further identifyer, H is considered as the standing height of a human, measured without shoes, hair ornaments and heavy outer garments.
Lengthl [m]Length l is an SI base quantity with SI base unit meter m. Quantities derived from length are area A [m2] and volume V [m3]. Length is an extensive quantity, increasing additively with the number of objects. The term 'height' h is used for length in cases of vertical position (see height of humans). Length of height per object, LUX [m·x-1] is length per unit-entity UX, in contrast to lentgth of a system, which may contain one or many entities, such as the length of a pipeline assembled from a number NX of individual pipes. Length is a quantity linked to direct sensory, practical experience, as reflected in terms related to length: long/short (height: tall/small). Terms such as 'long/short distance' are then used by analogy in the context of the more abstract quantity time (long/short duration).
MitObesity drugsBioactive mitObesity compounds are drugs and nutraceuticals with more or less reproducible beneficial effects in the treatment of diverse preventable degenerative diseases implicated in comorbidities linked to obesity, characterized by common mechanisms of action targeting mitochondria.
ObesityObesity is a disease resulting from excessive accumulation of body fat. In common obesity (non-syndromic obesity) excessive body fat is due to an obesogenic lifestyle with lack of physical exercise ('couch') and caloric surplus of food consumption ('potato'), causing several comorbidities which are characterized as preventable non-communicable diseases. Persistent body fat excess associated with deficits of physical activity induces a weight-lifting effect on increasing muscle mass with decreasing mitochondrial capacity. Body fat excess, therefore, correlates with body mass excess up to a critical stage of obesogenic lifestyle-induced sarcopenia, when loss of muscle mass results in further deterioration of physical performance particularly at older age.
VO2maxVO2max; VO2max/MMaximum oxygen consumption, VO2max, is and index of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by spiroergometry on human and animal organisms capable of controlled physical exercise performance on a treadmill or cycle ergometer. VO2max is the maximum respiration of an organism, expressed as the volume of O2 at STPD consumed per unit of time per individual object [mL.min-1.x-1]. If normalized per body mass of the individual object, M [kg.x-1], mass specific maximum oxygen consumption, VO2max/M, is expressed in units [].

MitoPedia concepts: MiP concept