A closed system is a system with boundaries that allow external exchange of energy (heat and work), but do not allow exchange of matter. A limiting case is light and electrons which cross the system boundary when work is exchanged in the form of light or electric energy. If the surroundings are maintained at constant temperature, and heat exchange is rapid to prevent the generation of thermal gradients, then the closed system is isothermal. A frequently considered case are closed isothermal systems at constant pressure (and constant volume with aqueous solutions). Changes of closed systems can be partitioned according to internal and external sources. Closed systems may be homogenous (well mixed and isothermal), continuous with gradients, or discontinuous with compartments (heterogenous).
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MitoPedia concepts: Ergodynamics
MitoPedia methods: Respirometry