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Concentration
Description
Concentration [mol·L^{-1}] is a volume-specific quantity for diluted samples s. In a concentration, the sample is expressed in a variety of formats: count, amount, charge, mass, energy. In solution chemistry, amount concentration is amount of substance n_{B} per volume V of the solution, c_{B} = [B] = n_{B}·V^{-1} [mol·dm^{-3}] = [mol·L^{-1}]. The standard concentration, c°, is defined as 1 mol·L^{-1} = 1 M. Count concentration C_{X} = N_{X}·V^{-1} [x·L^{-1}] is the concentration of the number N_{X} of elementary entities X, for which the less appropriate term 'number concentration' is used by IUPAC. If the sample is expressed as volume V_{s} (e.g., V_{O2}), then the 'volume-concentration' of V_{s} in V is termed 'volume fraction', Φ_{s} = V_{s}·V^{-1} (e.g., volume fraction of O_{2} in dry air, Φ_{O2}) = 0.20946). Density is the mass concentration in a volume V_{S} of pure sample S.
A change of concentration, dc_{X}, in isolated or closed systems at constant pressure is due to internal transformations (advancement per volume) only. In closed compressible systems (with a gas phase), the concentration of the gas changes, when pressure-volume work is performed on the system. In open systems, a change of concentration can additionally be due to external flow across the system boundaries.
Abbreviation: c [mol·L^{-1}]; C [x·L^{-1}]
Reference: BEC 2020.1
Communicated by Gnaiger E (2018-10-18) last update 2020-10-20
IUPAC definition
- Concentration {quote}:
- 1. Group of four quantities characterizing the composition of a mixture with respect to the volume of the mixture (mass, amount, volume and number concentration).
- 2. Short form for amount (of substance) concentration (substance concentration in clinical chemistry).
- {end of quote: IUPAC Gold Book}
Concentration and density
Concentration and density in different formats
- Concentration is an extensive quantity divided by volume V, or a count divided by volume V. The elementary entities X (or B) or the sample type s have to be specified in the text or indicated by a subscript or in parentheses. Examples: cell-count concentration C_{ce}; count concentration of protons C_{H+}; molar concentration of protons c_{H+}. Density is not only 'mass density ρ, but is used for many extensive quantities divided by volume or area.
Concentration Symbol Definition Unit Note Count concentration C_{X} = N_{X}·V^{-1} [x·L^{-1}] The IUPAC term 'number concentration' should be replaced by 'count concentration' (or 'number of entities concentration'). Amount concentration c_{B} = n_{B}·V^{-1} [mol·L^{-1}] Amount concentration is a counting concentration, converting the elementary unit [x] into moles [mol] using the Avogadro constant. Charge concentration C_{QX} = Q_{X}·V^{-1} [C·L^{-1}] Charge concentration is a counting concentration, converting the elementary unit [x] into coulombs C using the elementary charge, or converting moles [mol] into coulombs [C] using the Faraday constant. Charge density in electricity is 'charge per volume'. Mass concentration of X C_{mX} = m_{X}·V^{-1} [kg·L^{-1}] Mass concentration C_{mX} is mass of entities X per volume V of the mixture. Mass density of S ρ_{S} = m_{S}·V_{S}^{-1} [kg·L^{-1}] Mass density ρ_{S} is mass of the pure sample S per volume V_{S} of the pure sample; ρ_{S} is the reciprocal of specific volume. Volume concentration of X C_{VX} = V_{X}·V^{-1} [L·L^{-1}] Volume concentration C_{VX} is the volume of entities X per volume V of the mixture. Volume density Φ_{X} = V_{X}·V^{-1} [L·L^{-1}] Volume density is equivalent to the volume fraction.
Total concentration
- The total concentration of a substance (e.g. ADP) must be distinguished from the concentration of a specific ionic species (e.g. ADP^{4-}, MgADP^{2-}, MgHADP^{-}).
- The total concentration of a substance must be distinguished from the free concentration, if unspecific binding occurs to membranes (e.g. TPP) or if a substance is bound to BSA (e.g. fatty acids).
- The concentration of a substance (c) differs from the activity (a), except for dissolved gases and at very high dilution. The activity of dissolved gases is expressed as the (relative) partial pressure, e.g. p_{O2}). The ratio of concentration, e.g. c_{O2} [µM], and partial pressure, e.g. p_{O2} [kPa], is the solubility (see oxygen solubility, S_{O2}).
References
Bioblast link | Reference | Year |
---|---|---|
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures 2019 The International System of Units (SI) | Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (2019) The International System of Units (SI). 9th edition:117-216 ISBN 978-92-822-2272-0. | 2019 |
Cohen 2008 IUPAC Green Book | Cohen ER, Cvitas T, Frey JG, Holmström B, Kuchitsu K, Marquardt R, Mills I, Pavese F, Quack M, Stohner J, Strauss HL, Takami M, Thor HL (2008) Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry. IUPAC Green Book 3rd Edition, 2nd Printing, IUPAC & RSC Publishing, Cambridge. | 2008 |
Gnaiger 2020 BEC MitoPathways | Gnaiger E (2020) Mitochondrial pathways and respiratory control. An introduction to OXPHOS analysis. 5^{th} ed. Bioenerg Commun 2020.2:112 pp. https://doi.org/10.26124/bec:2020-0002 | 2020 |
Gnaiger 2020 MitoFit x | Gnaiger E (2021) The elementary unit — canonical reviewer's comments on: Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (2019) The International System of Units (SI) 9th ed. MitoFit Preprints 2020.4.v2. doi:10.26124/mitofit:200004.v2 | 2021-09-06 |
BEC 2020.1 doi10.26124bec2020-0001.v1 | Gnaiger Erich et al ― MitoEAGLE Task Group (2020) Mitochondrial physiology. Bioenerg Commun 2020.1:1-44. https://doi.org/10.26124/bec:2020-0001.v1 | 2020 |
Keywords
- Bioblast links: Concentration and pressure - >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>
- Concentration
- » Volume
- » Activity
- » Concentration
- » Density
- » Mole
- » Molar mass
- Concentration
- Pressure
- Solubility = concentration/pressure
- General
- » Boltzmann constant
- » Energy
- » Force
- » Gas constant
- » Work
- General
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