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'''2-Deoxyglucose''', also known as 2-deoxy-D-glucose is a glucose derivative that has the 2-hydroxyl group replaced by hydrogen. It competitively inhibits glycolysis by blocking hexokinase and phosphohexoseisomerase.  +
Reduction of [[oxoglutarate]] (2OG or alpha-ketoglutarate) to '''2-hydroxyglutarate''' (2HG) is driven by NADPH. 2HG is also formed in side reactions of [[lactate dehydrogenase]] and [[malate dehydrogenase]]. Millimolar 2HG concentrations are found in some cancer cells compared to , whereas side activities of lactate and malate dehydrogenase form submillimolar s-2-hydroxyglutarate (s-2HG). However, even wild-type IDH1 and IDH2, notably under shifts toward reductive carboxylation glutaminolysis or changes in other enzymes, lead to “intermediate” 0.01–0.1 mM 2HG levels, for example, in breast carcinoma compared with nanomolar concentrations in benign cells. 2HG is considered an important player in reprogramming metabolism of cancer cells.  +
'''2-mercaptoacetate''' is an inhibitor of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, MCAD, the rate-limiting enzyme of [[octanoylcarnitine]] oxidation. 2-mercaptoacetate has been used as an inhibitor of [[fatty acid oxidation]] ([[F-pathway control state]]). In permeabilized rat soleus muscle fibers, pre-incubation with 1 mM 2-mercaptoacetate for 45 min resulted in 58% inhibition of MCAD and decreased [[octanoylcarnitine]]&[[malate]] stimulated respiration by approximately 60% ([[Osiki 2016 FASEB J]]).  +
'''Adenosine diphosphate''' is a nucleotide. In [[OXPHOS]] core metabolism, ADP is a substrate of [[ANT]] and [[ATP synthase]] in the [[phosphorylation system]]. ADP is the discharged or low-energy counterpart of [[ATP]]. ADP can accept chemical energy by regaining a phosphate group to become ATP, in substrate-level phosphorylation (in anaerobic catabolism), at the expense of solar energy (in photosynthetic cells) or chemiosmotic energy (respiration in heterotrophic cells). ADP is added to [[mitochondrial preparations]] at kinetically saturating concentrations to induce the active state for evaluation of [[OXPHOS capacity]].  +
'''AMP-activated protein kinase''' is a regulatory protein which acts as crucial cellular energy sensor by sensing AMP, [[ADP]] and/or Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels in response to metabolic stresses or drug administration.  +
Science only progresses as quickly and efficiently as it is shared. But even with all of the technological capabilities available today, the process of publishing scientific work is taking longer than ever. '''ASAPbio''' (Accelerating Science and Publication in biology) is a scientist-driven nonprofit working to address this problem by promoting innovation and transparency in life sciences communication. In 2015, ASAPbio founder Ron Vale published an analysis of the increasing time to first-author publication among graduate students at UCSF, and proposed a more widespread use of preprints in the life sciences as a potential solution.  +
'''Adenosine triphosphate''' is a nucleotid and functions as the major carrier of chemical energy in the cells. As it transfers its energy to other molecules, it looses its terminal phosphate group and becomes adenosine diphosphate ([[ADP]]).  +
'''ATP synthase''' or '''F-ATPase''' (the use of Complex V is discouraged) catalyzes the [[endergonic]] phosphorylation of [[ADP]] to [[ATP]] in an over-all [[exergonic]] process that is driven by proton translocation along the [[protonmotive force]]. The ATP synthase can be inhibited by [[oligomycin]].  +
'''ATPases''' are enzymes that hydrolyse [[ATP]], releasing [[ADP]] and [[inorganic phosphate]]. The contamination of isolated mitochondria with ATPases from other organelles and endogenous adenylates can lead to the production of ADP, which can stimulate respiration. This situation would lead to an overestimation of [[LEAK respiration]] measured in the absence of ADP, ''L''(n) and subsequent inhibition of respiration by oligomycin, ''L''(Omy).  +
Also known as attenuation or extinction, '''absorbance''' (''A'') is a measure of the difference between the [[incident light]] intensity (''I''<sub>0</sub>) and the intensity of light emerging from a sample (''I''). It is defined as: ''A'' = log (''I''<sub>0</sub>/''I'')  +
When light enters a sample, the amount of light that it absorbs is dependent upon the wavelength of the incident light. The '''absorbance spectrum''' is the curve derived by plotting the measured [[absorbance]] against the wavelength of the light emerging from the sample over a given [[wavelength range]]. An [[absorbance spectrum]] may be characterised by peaks and troughs (absorbance maxima and minima) that can be used to identify, and sometimes quantify, different absorbing substances present in a sample.  +
When light enters a sample and emerges with an intensity (''I''), '''absorption''' (''Abs'') is the fraction of the light absorbed by the sample compared with the [[incident light]] intensity (''I''<sub>''0''</sub>): ''Abs'' = 1-''I''/''I''<sub>''0''</sub>. Absorption can also be expressed as ''Abs'' = 1-''T'', where ''T'' is the [[transmittance]].  +
An '''absorption spectrum''' is similar to an [[absorbance spectrum]] of a sample, but plotted as a function of [[absorption]] against wavelength.  +
In chemistry or physics, '''abundance''' or '''natural abundance''' refers to the amount of a chemical element isotope existing in nature. The abundance of an isotope on the Earth may vary depending on the place, but remains relatively constant in time (on a short-term scale). In a chemical reaction, the reactant is in abundance when the quantity of a substance is enough (or high) and constant during the reaction. '''Relative abundance''' represents the percentage of the total amount of all isotopes of the element. The relative abundance of each isotope in a sample can be identified using mass spectrometry.  +
'''Acceleration''', '''''a''''', is the change of [[velocity]] over time [m·s<sup>-2</sup>]. '''''a''''' = d'''''v'''''/d''t'' The symbol ''g'' is used for acceleration of free fall. The standard acceleration of free fall is defined as ''g''<sub>n</sub> = 9.80665 [m·s<sup>-2</sup>].  +
'''Acclimation''' is an immediate time scale adaptation expressing pheotypic plasticity in response to changes of a single variable under controlled laboratory conditions.  +