Gnaiger 1993 Pure Appl Chem

From Bioblast
Publications in the MiPMap
Gnaiger E (1993) Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of energy transformations. Pure Appl Chem 65:1983-2002.

» PAC, PAC:199365091983 Open Access

Gnaiger Erich (1993) Pure Appl Chem

Abstract: Important aspects of classical and nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed separately and lack alignment. Confusing definitions of heat and work exist for open systems in association with the exchange of matter. The concept of heat exchange in open systems requires clarification on the basis of calorimetric principles, whereas power is rigorously defined in terms of external work per time and the product of internal flows and forces. For illustration, analogous electric, thermal and chemical flows and forces are represented. An internal flow is the advancement of a transformation per time. A force is the partial Gibbs (Helmholtz) energy change per advancement. These relations are developed on the basis of the second law of thermodynamics with reference to entropy production, efficiency and energy dissipation. The symbols of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are not generally in line with IUPAC conventions. Any attempt towards a reconciliation necessarily leads to symbols which are unconventional in either tradition. Importantly, improvement of terminological consistency is a basis for conceptual clarification. Keywords: List of symbols, Definitions, Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, Open systems, Extensive, Intensive, System-specific Bioblast editor: Gnaiger E O2k-Network Lab: AT Innsbruck Gnaiger E


  • Page 1996, Reference 6: Von Stockar U, Gustafsson L, Larsson C, Marison I, Tissot P, Gnaiger E (1993) Thermodynamic considerations in constructing energy balances for cellular growth. Biochim Biophys Acta 1183:221-40. - »Bioblast link«
  • Page 1997, Table A1, category 7: The unit of conductance is not x2·W-1=x2·J-1·s, but is x2·J-1·s-1.
  • Page 1998, Table A2, category 7': The unit of conductivity (scalar) is not x2·W-1·m-3=x2·J-1·s·m-3, but is x2·J-1·s-1·m-3. Likewise, the unit of conductivity (vector) is not x2·W-1·m-1=x2·J-1·s·m-1, but is x2·J-1·s-1·m-1.
  • Page 1999, Table A3, category 7: The unit of electric conductance is not C2·W-1=C2·J-1·s, but is C2·J-1·s-1.
  • Page 2001, Table A5, category 6: Change of reacting amount of i. This equation in Table A5 has to be replaced by Eq. 2 on page 1984:
drni = dni - deni

Calorimetry and Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

  • International Symposium on Calorimetry and Thermodynamics of Biological Processes, Goteborg-Gullmarsstrand, Sweden, 15–19 May 1992 - »PAC«

Nomenclature update

  • It is suggested to replace the symbol for Gibbs force of reaction, FB,r (Eq. 24), by the symbol ΔrFB.



Click to expand or collaps
»Bioblast links: Energy and exergy - >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>
  • Joule [J]; 1 J = 1 N·m = 1 V·C; 1 cal = 4.184 J
Fundamental relationships
» Energy
» Exergy
» Extensive quantity
» Force
» Pressure
» Intensive quantity
Forms of energy
» Internal-energy dU
» Enthalpy dH
» Heat deQ
» Bound energy dB
Forms of exergy
» Helmholtz energy dA
» Gibbs energy dG
» Work deW
» Dissipated energy diD


Click to expand or collaps
Bioblast links: Force and membrane potential - >>>>>>> - Click on [Expand] or [Collapse] - >>>>>>>
Fundamental relationships
» Force
» Affinity
» Flux
» Advancement
» Advancement per volume
» Stoichiometric number
mt-Membrane potential and protonmotive force
» Protonmotive force
» Mitochondrial membrane potential
» Chemical potential
» Faraday constant
» Format
» Uncoupler
» O2k-Catalogue: O2k-TPP+ ISE-Module
» O2k-Manual: MiPNet15.03 O2k-MultiSensor-ISE
» TPP - O2k-Procedures: Tetraphenylphosphonium
» Specifications: MiPNet15.08 TPP electrode
» Poster
» Unspecific binding of TPP+
» TPP+ inhibitory effect
» O2k-Catalogue: O2k-FluoRespirometer
» O2k-Manual: MiPNet22.11 O2k-FluoRespirometer manual
» Safranin - O2k-Procedures: MiPNet20.13 Safranin mt-membranepotential / Safranin
» TMRM - O2k-Procedures: TMRM
» O2k-Publications: mt-Membrane potential
» O2k-Publications: Coupling efficiency;uncoupling

Cited by

Gnaiger 2024 Ambiguity crisis.jpg
Gnaiger E (2024) Addressing the ambiguity crisis in bioenergetics and thermodynamics. MitoFit Preprints 2024.3.

Gnaiger 2020 BEC MitoPathways
Gnaiger E (2020) Mitochondrial pathways and respiratory control. An introduction to OXPHOS analysis. 5th ed. Bioenerg Commun 2020.2.

Gnaiger Erich et al ― MitoEAGLE Task Group (2020) Mitochondrial physiology. Bioenerg Commun 2020.1.
Gnaiger E et al ― MitoEAGLE Task Group (2020) Mitochondrial physiology. Bioenerg Commun 2020.1. doi:10.26124/bec:2020-0001.v1.

  • 18 citations in PAC (2022-10-16)


HRR: Theory 

Amount of substance, Efficiency, Flow, Force, Flux, IUPAC, LEAK respiration, Mitochondrial marker, Protonmotive force, Steady state, System, BEC 2020.1, BEC 2020.2, X-mass Carol, Gnaiger 2024 MitoFit 

Cookies help us deliver our services. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies.